Neuroderecho y la Neurociencia del libre albedrío: una visión general

Autores/as

  • Renato César Cardoso Departamento de Filosofía del Derecho. Facultad de Derecho. Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brasil.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46583/scio_2021.21.843

Palabras clave:

neuroderecho, neuroética, libre albedrío, neurociencia, derecho, paradigma de Libet

Resumen

Debido al advenimiento de la neurociencia moderna, várias disciplinas científicas han desarrollado teorías, perspectivas y metodologías completamente nuevas. Los sustanciales avances y descubrimientos realizados en este campo durante las últimas décadas, especialmente los relacionados con la cognición y el comportamiento humanos, han marcado el rumbo de muchas áreas de investigación tradicionales y han dado lugar a otras, como la neuroética y el neuroderecho. Aquí echamos un vistazo a algunas de las características generales del creciente campo del neuroderecho, un campo interdisciplinario que se concentra en la intersección del derecho y la neurociencia. Luego discutimos la neurociencia del libre albedrío, uno de los temas más impactantes y urgentes en el debate del neuroderecho, con especial atención al paradigma de Libet, los desarrollos científicos recientes y las interpretaciones novedosas que cuestionan los supuestos habituales al respecto.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Alces, P. The Moral Conflict of Law and Neuroscience. (2018). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Bard, I., Gaskell, G., Allansdottir, A., da Cunha, R. V., Eduard, P., Hampel, J., ... & Zwart, H. (2018). Bottom up ethics-neuroenhancement in education and employment. Neuroethics, 11(3), 309-322.

Belcher, A., & Sinnott?Armstrong, W. (2010). Neurolaw. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1(1), 18-22.

Bennett, M. R. & Hacker, P. M. S. (2003). Philosophical foundations of neuroscience (Vol. 79). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Bennett, M. R., Dennett, D., Hacker, P., & Searle, J. (2007). Neuroscience and philosophy: Brain, mind, and language. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Blackmore, S., Clark, T. W., Hallett, M., Haynes, J. D., Honderich, T., Levy, N., ... & Waller, B. (2013). Exploring the illusion of free will and moral responsibility. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books

Brass, M., Furstenberg, A., & Mele, A. R. (2019). Why neuroscience does not disprove free will. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 102, 251-263.

Brass, M., Lynn, M. T., Demanet, J., & Rigoni, D. (2013). Imaging volition: what the brain can tell us about the will. Experimental brain research, 229(3), 301-312.

Bunge, M. (2014). The mind–body problem: A psychobiological approach. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press Inc.

Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2005). Neuroeconomics: How neuroscience can inform economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 43(1), 9-64.

Catley, P. (2016). The Future of Neurolaw. European Journal of Current Legal Issues, 22(2).

Chandler, J. A. (2018). Neurolaw and neuroethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 27(4), 590-598.

Churchland, P. S. (1989). Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind-brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clausen, J., & Levy, N. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of neuroethics. Heidelberg: Springer Netherlands.

Crick, F., & Clark, J. (1994). The astonishing hypothesis. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1(1), 10-16.

Darby, R. R., Joutsa, J., Burke, M. J., & Fox, M. D. (2018). Lesion network localization of free will. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(42), 10792-10797.

Decety, J., & Wheatley, T. (Eds.). (2015). The moral brain: A multidisciplinary perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dennett, D. C. (1993). Consciousness explained. London: Penguin UK.

Dominik, T., Dostál, D., Zielina, M., Šmahaj, J., Sedlá?ková, Z., & Procházka, R. (2017). Libet’s experiment: Questioning the validity of measuring the urge to move. Consciousness and cognition, 49, 255-263.

Fernandez-Duque, D., Evans, J., Christian, C., Hodges, S. Superfluous Neuroscience Information Makes Explanations of Psychological Phenomena More Appealing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2015) 27:5, 926-944

Fischer, J. M., Kane, R., Pereboom, D., & Vargas, M. (2009). Four views on free will. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Focquaert, F., Caruso, G., Shaw, E., & Pereboom, D. (2020). Justice without retribution: interdisciplinary perspectives, stakeholder views and practical implications. Neuroethics, 13(1), 1-3.

Forstmann, M., & Burgmer, P. (2018). A free will needs a free mind: Belief in substance dualism and reductive physicalism differentially predict belief in free will and determinism. Consciousness and cognition, 63, 280-293.

Frede, M. (2011). A free will: Origins of the notion in ancient thought. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Fried, I., Mukamel, R., & Kreiman, G. (2011). Internally generated preactivation of single neurons in human medial frontal cortex predicts volition. Neuron, 69(3), 548-562.

Frith, C. D., & Haggard, P. (2018). Volition and the brain–revisiting a classic experimental study. Trends in neurosciences, 41(7), 405-407.

Fumagalli, M., & Priori, A. (2012). Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality. Brain, 135(7), 2006-2021.

Galton, F. (1891). Hereditary genius. New York, NY: D. Appleton.

García-López, E., Mercurio, E., Nijdam-Jones, A., Morales, L. A., & Rosenfeld, B. (2019). Neurolaw in Latin America: Current status and challenges. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 18(3), 260-280.

Genschow, O., Hawickhorst, H., Rigoni, D., Aschermann, E., & Brass, M. (2020). Professional Judges’ Disbelief in Free Will Does Not Decrease Punishment. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1948550620915055;

Genschow, O., Rigoni, D., & Brass, M. (2017). Belief in free will affects causal attributions when judging others' behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(38), 10071–10076. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701916114

Greene, J., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). For the Law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing and Everything. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences.

Haggard, P., & Eimer, M. (1999). On the relation between brain potentials and the awareness of voluntary movements. Experimental brain research, 126(1), 128-133.

Hirstein, W., Sifferd, K. L., & Fagan, T. K. (2018). Responsible Brains: Neuroscience, Law, and Human Culpability. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Illes, J., & Sahakian, B. J. (Eds.). (2013). Oxford handbook of neuroethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, O. D., Marois, R., Farah, M. J., & Greely, H. T. (2013). Law and neuroscience. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(45), 17624-17630.

Jones, O. D., Schall, J. D., & Shen, F. X. (2015). Law and neuroscience. New York, NY: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.

Kolber, A. Will There Be a Neurolaw Revolution? Indiana Law Journal, Vol. 89, p. 807, 2014

Kornhuber, H. H., & Deecke, L. (1964, January). Hirnpotentialanderungen beim Menschen vor und nach Willkurbewegungen dargestellt mit Magnetbandspeicherung und Ruckwartsanalyse. In Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology (Vol. 281, No. 1, p. 52).

Lee, N., Broderick, A. J., & Chamberlain, L. (2007). What is ‘neuromarketing’? A discussion and agenda for future research. International journal of psychophysiology, 63(2), 199-204.

Levy, N. (2014). Is neurolaw conceptually confused? The journal of ethics, 18(2), 171-185.

Libet, B. (1985). Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral and brain sciences, 8(4), 529-539.

Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., & Pearl, D. K. (1993). Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential). Neurophysiology of consciousness (pp. 249-268). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser

Lilienfeld, S. O., Aslinger, E., Marshall, J., & Satel, S. (2018). Neurohype: A field guide to exaggerated brain-based claims. In L. S. M. Johnson & K. S. Rommelfanger (Eds.), Routledge handbooks in applied ethics. The Routledge handbook of neuroethics (p. 241–261). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Lombroso, C. (1880). L'uomo delinquente (Vol. 85). Torino: Fratelli Bocca.

Maoz, U., & Yaffe, G. (2016). What does recent neuroscience tell us about criminal responsibility?. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 3(1), 120-139.

Meynen, G. (2014). Neurolaw: neuroscience, ethics, and law. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 17(4), 819-829.

Moniz, E. (1937). Prefrontal leucotomy in the treatment of mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 93(6), 1379-1385.

Moore, M. S. (2020). Mechanical Choices: The Responsibility of the Human Machine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Morse, S. (2004, January). New neuroscience, old problems: legal implications of brain science. In Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science (Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 81-90).

Morse, S. (2011). Avoiding irrational neurolaw exuberance: a plea for neuromodesty. Law, Innovation and Technology, 3(2), 209-228.

Muñoz, J.M. (2012). Hacia una sistematización de la relación entre determinismo y libertad. Daimon Revista Internacional de Filosofia, (56), 5-19.

Muñoz, J.M. (2013). Neurofilosofía y libre albedrío. Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 59: 57-70.

Muñoz, J. M., García-López, E., & Rusconi, E. (2020). Neurolaw: The Call for Adjusting Theory Based on Scientific Results. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2479.

Nann, M., Cohen, L. G., Deecke, L., & Soekadar, S. R. (2019). To jump or not to jump-The Bereitschaftspotential required to jump into 192-meter abyss. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-9.

Pardo, M. S., & Patterson, D. (2015). Minds, brains, and law: The conceptual foundations of law and neuroscience. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Picozza, N. Neurolaw: An introduction. (2016) New York, NY: Springer

Poldrack, R. A. (2018). The new mind readers: What neuroimaging can and cannot reveal about our thoughts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rigoni, D., Kühn, S., Sartori, G., & Brass, M. (2011). Inducing disbelief in free will alters brain correlates of preconscious motor preparation: The brain minds whether we believe in free will or not. Psychological science, 22(5), 613-618.

Roskies, A. (2002). Neuroethics for the new millenium. Neuron, 35(1), 21-23.

Roskies, A. L. (2011). Why Libet’s studies don’t pose a threat to free will. Conscious will and responsibility, 11-22.

Ryle, G. (2009). The concept of mind. London, UK: Hutchinson & Co

Schleim, S., Spranger, T. M., Erk, S., & Walter, H. (2011). From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 6(1), 48-57.

Schreiber, D. (2017). Neuropolitics: Twenty years later. Politics and the Life Sciences, 36(2), 114-131.

Schurger, A., Sitt, J. D., & Dehaene, S. (2012). An accumulator model for spontaneous neural activity prior to self-initiated movement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(42), E2904-E2913.

Shariff, A. F., Greene, J. D., Karremans, J. C., Luguri, J. B., Clark, C. J., Schooler, J. W., ... & Vohs, K. D. (2014). Free will and punishment: A mechanistic view of human nature reduces retribution. Psychological science, 25(8), 1563-1570.

Shen, F. X. (2010). The law and neuroscience bibliography: Navigating the emerging field of neurolaw. International Journal of Legal Information, 38(3), 352-399.

Shen, F. X. (2016). Law and neuroscience 2.0. Ariz. St. LJ, 48, 1043.

Shen, F. X. (2016). The overlooked history of neurolaw. Fordham L. Rev., 85, 667.

Sinnott-Armstrong, W., & Nadel, L. (Eds.). (2010). Conscious will and responsibility: A tribute to Benjamin Libet. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Soon, C. S., Brass, M., Heinze, H. J., & Haynes, J. D. (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain. Nature neuroscience, 11(5), 543-545.

Taylor, J. S; J. Anderson Harp; Tyron Elliott (1991). Neuropsychologists and Neurolawyers. Neuropsychology. 5 (4): 293–305

Verplaetse, J. (2009). Localizing the moral sense: Neuroscience and the search for the cerebral seat of morality, 1800-1930. Dordrecht: Springer.

Wagner, A. D., Bonnie, R. J., Casey, B. J., Davis, A., Faigman, D. L., Hoffman, M. B., ... & Yaffe, G. (2016). fMRI and lie detection. Vanderbilt Law Research Paper No. 17-10

Wegner, D. M. (2003). The mind's best trick: how we experience conscious will. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(2), 65-69.

Wisniewski, D., Deutschländer, R., & Haynes, J. D. (2019). Free will beliefs are better predicted by dualism than determinism beliefs across different cultures. PloS one, 14(9), e0221617.

Yang, Q., Shao, R., Zhang, Q., Li, C., Li, Y., Li, H., & Lee, T. (2019). When morality opposes the law: an fMRI investigation into punishment judgments for crimes with good intentions. Neuropsychologia, 127, 195

Publicado

2021-12-03

Número

Sección

Artículos de investigación. Fascículo